"Rose hips have an impressive amount of vitamin C, which is one of the best methods to boost the immune system." https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/fruit/rose-hips.html
HERBS AND SUPPLEMENTS ROSE HIPS
PART II - ROSE HIPS - FEED WHITE BLOOD CELLS
EDITORS' NOTE: To reiterate, the Editors always advocate taking whole herbs when ever possible, instead of the extracts. Rose hips are a perfect example. Just look at all of the constituents, such as ascorbic acid, polyphenols, and flavonoids found in rose hips, and the healthful roles these compounds play in our lives.
"The levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, and B -carotene found in Rosa canina would make it a suitable source of these antioxidants that might be used commercially to retard rancidity in fatty materials in food manufacturing, to reduce the effect of ageing, and to help to prevent oxidative -stress related diseases, such as cancer and heart disease." Barros L et al., 2011 - Exotic Fruits as a Source of Important Phytochemicals: Improving the Traditional Use of Rosa Canina Fruits in Portugal, Food Research International, 2011.
"Rosa rogusa is used in Chinese traditional medicine with the functions of promoting blood circulation, relieving the depressed liver, and attenuating breast disorders." Chen T et al, 2015.
WHAT ARE ROSE HIPS?
"The rose hip is the fruit of the rose plant that typically is red-to-orange, but ranges from dark purple to black in some species. Rose hips begin to form after successful polliniation of flowers in spring or early summer, and ripen in late summer through autumn." wikipedia.org.
"Galls revealed the highest antioxidant potential, ripen hips showed the highest tocopherols and β-carotene contents, as also the most adequate n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratios. Unripe hips gave the highest levels of ascorbic acid and petals revealed the highest concentration of sugars." Barros L et al, 2011
ROSE HIPS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM - ROSE HIPS (ROSA CANINA) and ITS EFFECTS ON IMMUNE SYSTEM OF RATS - INCREASED MONOCYTES, NEUTROPHILS, GAMMA GLOBINS
In the Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad et al. 2011 study, the researchers sought to "investigate the possible potential of Rosa canina as an immunomodulator in rats and its effects on some biochemical parameters."
Rats were divided into three groups: The control group, rats given Rosa canina (rose hips) fruit extract 250 mg/kg, and rats given Rosa canina fruit extract 500 mg/kg for four weeks. Blood samples were drawn each week to evaluate white blood counts, phagocyte (ingestion of bacteria) activity, liver enzymes, and albumin, and gamma globulin.. At the end of the study, the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) and GSH (glutathione) were obtained.
Knowing that, "The anti-oxidant function of the vitamin C could in part, at least, enhance immunity by maintaining the functional and structural integrity of important immune cells," the researchers found that the vitamin C content of their Rosa canina extract was 52 ± 1.9 mg/100g of dray sample. In addition, there was a "close relation between Rosa canina and acid ascorbate on the RSA (free radical scavenging) evaluation."
Results: "A significant increase of monocytes and neutrophils (white blood cells that are phagocytes and part of the immune system) was seen in groups which received 250 and 500 mg Rosa canina, especially on days 21 and 14 respectively." The phagocytic activity of the white blood cells, according to the researchers, seems to be attributable to the high levels of ascorbic acid. Note that both Rosa canina groups of rats had a higher phagocyte level than the control rats.
"The results showed that Rosa canina 500 mg also signiﬁcantly increased the gamma globins (contain antibodies to help immune system) levels during all study days." Note that," Another healthy function of fruits is their essential fatty acid composition that animals cannot synthesize, and must obtain through diet. ....Experiments demonstrated that most antibodies are located in the gamma globulin fraction of serum proteins; therefore, increasing this fraction, has positive effects on the immune system."
The last day of the study showed a significant increase in the MDA level and decreased GSH level compared to the control rats. Thus, it showed that "Rosa canina contributed to maintaining the serum antioxidants at an optimum level in rats." And, note that, "Antioxidative effects of Rosa canina are due not only to vitamin C but also to polyphenolics." (See the Daels-Rakotoarison et al. 2002 study below.).
Conclusion: "The data suggest that the Rosa canina extract that has been used in traditional medicine might have immunomodulatory effects."
(See Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad et al., Rosa canina L. Fruit Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effects on Some Immunological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats, Bioimpacts, 2011.)
ROSE HIPS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM - REMOVING VITAMIN C (ANTIOXIDANT) FROM ROSE HIPS - HOW EFFECTIVE IS A ROSE HIPS EXTRACT'S POLYPHENOLICS AS ANTIOXIDANT AGAINST REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES?
"Respiratory bursts lead neutrophils (phagocytes) to produce harmful ROS (reactive oxygen species), such as superoxide anions, hpochlorous acid, and hydrogen peroxide.
In their 2002 study, the researchers, Daels-Rakotoarison DA et al., while acknowledging that Rosa canina contains "a large amount of vitamin C, which is an antioxidant", wanted to investigate the other properties of Rosa canina.
What about the antioxidant activities of the polyphenolics in Rosa canina?
So, the researchers focused their research on "the polyphenolics contained in rose hips to evaluate their antioxidant properties". These polyphenolics in Rosa canina are mostly proanthocyanidins and flavonoids.
But can a Rosa canina extract, stripped of its vitamin C, have an antioxidant effect against reactive oxygen species?
In a cell study, this vitamin C-free Rosa canina extract was directly tested for its effects on superoxide anions, hpochlorous acid, and hydrogen peroxide, and "inflammatory conditions were reproduced by stimulating the neutrophils with stimuli having different transductional pathways, in order to determine a possible mechanism of action."
Results: The vitamin C-free Rosa canina extract inhibited reactive oxygen species in both aceullar and cellular systems. "5.73 mg/L, 1.33 mg/L and 2.34 mg/L respectively for superoxide anions,hypochlorous acid,and hydrogen peroxide in acellular experiments." The inhibition rates were similar in the cellular tests. Conclusion: "Therefore, the antioxidative effects of Rosa canina are due not only to vitamin C, but also to polyphenolics."
(See Daels-Rakotoarison DA et al., Effects of Rosa Canina Fruit Extract on Neutrophil Respiratory Burst, Phytother Res, 2002.)
ROSEHIPS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM - EFFECT OF ROSE HIPS ON FREE RADICALS AND HUMAN CANCER CELLS, INCLUDING BREAST CANCER CELLS
In the Daels-Rakotoarison DA et al. study cited above, Rosa canina had an inhibitory effect against three reactive oxygen species.
Does Rosa canina have an effect against 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrythydrazyl radicals? And how about breast cancer cells?
In the Tumbas VT et al. 2012 study, the researchers stated that Rosa canina "is a rich source of vitamin C and polyphenols", and explored whether rose hips, as an antioxidant, can play a helpful role against oxidation-related diseases.
For their experiments, the phytochemicals in rose hips tea were divided into three fractions: (1) Vitamin C, (2) flavonoids, and (3) polyphenol compounds (most abundantly, quercetin and ellagic acid).
Results: "Rosehip fractions, primarily rosehip flavonoids,showed high antioxidant activity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH(•))."
"The vitamin C fraction did not inhibit the growth of tumor cells." ( EDITORS' NOTE: This includes breast cancer cells... Just a cell study, but interesting, nonetheless.)
Conclusion: "The results of this study confirm that vitamin C and flavonoids are responsible for the antioxidant activity of rosehip tea, while only polyphenols contribute to its antiproliferative activity."
(See Tumbas VT et al., Effect of Rosehip (Rosa canina) Phytochemicals on Stable Free Radicals and Human Cancer Cells, J Sci Food Agric, 2012.)
ROSE HIPS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM - DO ROSE HIPS AFFECT GENOTOXICITY OF INSECTICIDES IN LYMPHOCYTES AS SEEN ON MICRONUCLEUS TEST?
In the Kasimoglu C et al. 2015 study, the researchers sought to determine if rose hips could ameliorate the effects of two genotoxic insecticides, cypermethrin and fenvalerate, described to be "widely used pirethroid insecticides".
First, the researchers determined the genotoxic effects of the insecticides in a micronucleus test, which shows micronuclei that are chromosome breaks that are unincorporated in the nucleus, to be "1.275 in the highest application group of cypermethrin, and 1.600 in the highest application group of fenvalerate."
Next, the researchers determined the ability of the Rosa canina water and Rosa canina ethanol extracts of rosehip to combat the toxic insecticides. Results? "The micronucleus frequencies in cypermethrin + Rosa canina water extract, cypermethrin + Rosa canina ethanol extract, fenvalerate + Rosa canina water extract, and fenvalerate + Rosa canina ethanol application groups were, respectively, determined as 1.000, 1.075, 1.225, and 1.275."
Conclusion: "According to the results, cypermethrin and fenvalerate have genotoxic effects, the water and ethanol extracts of rosehip reduced the genotoxicity of the both insecticides."
(See Kasimoglu C et al., Mutagenic Biomonitoring of Pirethroid Insecticides in Human Lymphocyte Cultures: Use of Micronuclei as Biomarkers and Recovery By Rosa canina Extracts of Mutagenic Effects, Pharm Biol, 2015.)
ROSE HIPS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM - TWO ROSE SPECIES - ROSA CANINA WINE AND ROSA RUGOSA WINES- AND THEIR ANTIOXIDANT and ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES - THESE ROSE HIP WINES REDUCE MUTATIONS!
In the Czyzowska A et al. 2014 study, the researchers investigated the polyphenols and vitamin C, as well as the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of Rosa canina and Rosa rugosa.
" Both Rosa canina wine and Rosa rugosa wine are high in polyphenols and ascorbic acid."
The researchers tested the antioxidant activities of both rose hip wines.
Antioxidant Results: " The results of our study show that wild rose wines are a rich source of antioxidants. "R. rugosa and R. canina wines revealed high antioxidant activity in different assays with ... different radicals. Significant differences were found between the tested wines in terms of their reactivity against the ABTS and DMPD radicals.. Expressed in terms of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), the activity ranged from 8 to 13.5 mM." In the DPPH assay, the Rosa rugosa antioxidant score was higher than Rosa canina, as its ascorbic acid level is also high.
The researchers tested the antimutagenic effects of the two rose hip wines to see if the wines could reduce the mutations caused by the mutagen, N-methyl-N′-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). The wines were tested in vitro in Salmonella Typhimurium TA98 and Salmonella Typhimurium TA100.
Antimutagenic Results: "Rosa rugosa wines reduced the intensity of mutations induced by MNNG in a dose-dependent manner by 16-48% in Salmonella Typhimuirum TA98 and by 12-52% in Salmonella Typhimurium TA100."
"Wines from the dog rose (Rosa canina) showed a greater ability to reduce mutations."
The researchers noted that another study had found that there is, " A positive correlation between the antimutagenic activity and polyphenol content of vegetables and fruits, which is consistent with our results. Phenolics can create complexes or interact non-enzymatically with mutagens, thus reducing their bioavailability. .... In our study, wines from Rosa canina were found to contain higher levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids, but only about half the level of vitamin C. These results may indicate a lack of correlations between antimutagenic activity and the vitamin C content in these rose hip wines."
Conclusion: "The high antioxidant activity of wild rose wines has been confirmed by different assays (using ABTS, DPPH, and DMPD radicals). Moreover, the wines have been found to reduce the intensity of mutations induced by MNNG in a dose-dependent manner."
(See Czyzowska A et al., Polyphenols, vitamin C and Antioxidant Activity in Wines from Rosa Canina L. and Rosa Rugosa Thumb., Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2014.)
ROSE HIPS, HYPERPLASIA, AND BREAST CANCER
ROSA RUGOSA AND ITS POLYPHENOLS HAVE ANTI-HYPERPLASIA EFFECT IN MAMMARY GLANDS OF RATS
In the Tumbas VT et al. 2012 study reported on above, the researchers found that it was the polyphenols in Rosa canina that contribute to its antiproliferative activity in breast cancer cells.
Similarly, the Chen T et al 2015 study, using the Rosa rugosa variety of rose hips found in East Asia, focused on whether the polyphenols in Rosa rugosa would have an effect on breast cells, this time a hyperplasia study on too much proliferation in the mammary glands of rats.
Hyperplasia is the proliferation of cells. If hyperplasia were to progress to atypical hyperplasia, there would be an increased risk of breast cancer.
In their efforts to create hyperplasia in the rats, the researchers injected estrogen for 25 days, followed by 5 days of progestogen.into the rats. All the while, the polyphenol fraction of the Rosa rugosa was given for 30 days.
Results: The researchers found that the polyphenols-rich fraction from Rosa rogusa "could exert anti-hyperplasia effects in rats via modulating the mammary expression of JNK ("Inflammatory signals, changes in levels of reactive oxygen species, ultraviolet radiation, protein synthesis inhibitors, and a variety of stress stimuli can activate JNK", wikipedia.org), and AKT ("Kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration", wikipedia.org), as well as alleviating the NF-kB related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses."
Thus, Rosa rogusa "attenuated breast disorders"!
(See Chen T et al., Anti-Hyperplasia Effects of Rosa Rugosa Polyphenols in Rats with Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands, 2015.)
HAVE TRIPLE NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER? 2015 STUDY- ROSE HIPS (ROSA CANINA) FOR PROLIFERATION, MIGRATION IN TRIPLE NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER CELLS!
"This study investigated the efficacy of rosehip extracts in preventing proliferation and migration of TNBC (triple negative
breast cancer)... Cells treated with rosehip extracts (1mg/mL -25ng/mL) demonstrated a significant decrease in cell proliferation and migration. Additionally, pretreatment of this cell line with rosehip extracts decreased AKT, MAPK, and p70S6K phosphorylation suggesting these extracts prevent TNBC cell proliferation and migration by blocking both the MAPK and AKT signaling mechanisms."
The Cagle P et al. 2015 study "investigated the efficacy of rosehip extracts in preventing proliferation and migration of a TNBC (triple negative breast cancer) cell line."
The researchers "examined whether rosehip extracts could enhance the chemotherapeutic properties of Doxorubicin (20µM) - a drug. . Rosehip extracts enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of Doxorubicin. These data suggest that rosehip extracts are capable of decreasing cell proliferation and migration in a TNBC cell line and may serve as either an alternative or complimentary treatment to current chemotherapeutic regimens for TNBC."
(See Cagle P et al., Rosehip (Rosa canina) Extracts Prevent Cell Proliferation and Migration in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, FASEB, 2015.)
JUST THE PETALS, PLEASE, OF ROSA RUGOSA VARIETY OF ROSE HIPS - CYTOXIC EFFECTS AGAINST BREAST CANCER CELLS, PLUS ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES In the Nowak R et al.2013 study, the researchers explored the healthful properties of Rosa rugosa petals, since comprehensive information is "still lacking".
What is the cytotoxic effect of the petals against breast cancer cells?
Results? "Significant cytotoxic (up to 100% of dead cells)" effects were seen in the breast cancer cells!!
How about antiradical activity? Results? "Antiradical properties (IC50 1.33 - 0.08 mg mg(-1) DPPH(•) ) were demonstrated."
How about antimicrobial activities? Results? "Notable antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial (i.e. S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis) and two yeast strains (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis) was shown." Conclusion: In this formative characterization of Rosa rugosa petals, "Five phenolic acids and six flavonoids previously not reported in the plant material were identified."
(See Nowak R et al., Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Chemical Composition of Rose Petals, J Sci Food Agric, 2013.)