"The origin of all science is in the desire to know causes." William Hazlitt
"HEALING IS VOLTAGE." Jerry Tennant, MD
* EDITORS' NOTE: BEFORE USING ANY RIFE FREQUENCY DEVICE, DR. CLARK ZAPPER, ETC., PLEASE CONSULT WITH A KNOWLEDGEABLE MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL!
January 2022 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/01/220111100030.htm Researchers have found that manipulating voltage patterns of tumor cells -- using ion channel blockers already FDA-approved as treatments for other diseases -- can in fact significantly reduce metastasis in animal models of breast cancer. Potassium channel-driven bioelectric signaling regulates metastasis in triple-negative breast cancerView ORCID ProfileSamantha LPayne, PriyankaRam, Deepti H.Srinivasan, Thanh T.Le, View ORCID ProfileMichaelLevin, This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review [what does this mean?] AbstractThere is a critical need to better understand the mechanisms that drive local cell invasion and metastasis to develop new therapeutics targeting metastatic disease. Bioelectricity is an important mediator of cellular processes and changes in the resting membrane potential (RMP) are associated with increased cancer cell invasion. However, the mechanism is not well understood. Our data demonstrate that altering the RMP of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells by manipulating potassium channel expression increases in vitro invasion, in vivo tumor growth, and metastasis, and is accompanied by changes in gene expression associated with cell adhesion. We describe a novel mechanism for RMP-mediated cell migration involving cadherin-11 and the MAPK pathway. Importantly, we identify a new strategy to target metastatic TNBC in vivo by repurposing FDA-approved potassium channel blockers. Our results provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which bioelectricity regulates cancer cell invasion and metastasis that could lead to a new class of therapeutics for patients with metastatic disease.
EMFs (electro-magnetic fields) and PEMFs (pulsed electro-magnetic fields) are NOT curative of breast cancer.
However, William Pawluk, MD, wrote, As "PMEFs do not seem to affect healthy cells in any negative way, PEMFs may be very useful in both treating and preventing breast cancer."
Compellingly, the Lucia U et al. 2016 study has found "theoretical evidence that applying electromagnetic field therapy early on in the treatment (when rapid cell proliferation dominates) may maximize its anti-cancer efficiency".
For further information, please read the articles and studies (especially the Lucia study) presented in this FREQUENCIES' section.
THERAPEUTIC ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS - ANTI-ANGIOGENESIS IN BREAST CANCER IN MICE
Notice the area of hypoxia (low oxygen) in a tumor. The HIF (hypoxia -inducing factor) producing region (subcortical) is believed to generate "sprouting of endothelial cell pseudopods and neo-angiogenesis. Cells further away from this neo-angiogenesis zone lack essential nutrients and oxygen and become necrotic. Thus, this angiogenesis process is proposed to be hypoxia driven, and is also proposed to be a main target of therapeutic electromagnetic frequency therapy".
In the Cameron IL et al. 2014 study, mice were implanted with breast cancer cells, and once the tumors reached 100 mm, daily therapeutic electromagnetic field treatments - from 10 to 20 milli-Tesla (100 - 200 gauss) at 120 pulses per second, for 3-80 minutes once or twice a day for twelve days - were given to test the growth and vascularization of the breast cancer tumors.
Findings: This study did NOT show that "electromagnetic frequency treatment resulted in tumor regression to a smaller size. ...One can conclude that use of therapeutic electromagnetic field frequency does not appear to provide a possible sole (stand alone) cure for tumor cancer patients".
However, the electromagnetic field therapy - 15 mT (150 gauss) for 10 minutes a day for 12 days - has an anti-angiogenesis effect. Thus, the virtuosity of electromagnetic therapy lies in its "focus on retarding of cancerous tumor angiogenesis. ... The anti-angiogenesis action of therapeutic electromagnetic field therapy appears to deprive the cancer cells of needed nutrients and oxygen and they die. Anti-angiogenesis agents can also interfere with tumor vascular metastasis."
While not curative (not causing tumor regression), "It is proposed that electromagnetic field therapy aimed at suppression of tumor growth and vascularization may prove a safe alternative for patients whether they are or are not candidates for conventional cancer therapy."
(See Cameron IL et al., Optimization of a Therapeutic Electromagnetic Field (EMF) to Retard Breast Cancer Tumor Growth and Vascularity. Cancer Cell Int, 2014.)
AN EXAMPLE OF ELECTRONIC THERAPY... AN A-6 DR. CLARK ZAPPER! ALTHOUGH THE ZAPPER IS SHOWN WITH WRIST BANDS, COPPER TUBES NEED TO BE USED.
THE ZAPPER MAY BE CONNECTED TO PLATES (IMAGE ABOVE), USING EITHER MICROSCOPIC SLIDES OR BOTTLE COPIES. ZAPPER PLATES' PHOTO BY M.W., A MEMBER OF BREAST CANCER STUDY AND SUPPORT.
The depicted A-6 zapper, which is used with copper hand holds, emits 30Khz (30,000) hertz and is battery-run. Note that once the zapper is attached to "plates" upon which bottle copies or microscopic slides may be placed - the breast cancer patient may be able to place the mammary gland slide - to more specifically reach that organ. Little wires are used to demarcate either the right breast or the left breast. The objective of the zapper is to kill "parasites, bacteria, viruses, and fungus". The zapper is, "A positive electrical force that pulses up and down, and energizes the white blood cells to go on an all out attack on the enemies: parasites, toxins, bacteria, everything in spite of their five immunity blocks: benzene, PCBs, metals, dyes, and asbestos. For a time, the white blood cells turn into super-white blood cells." For more information about zapping, see http://www.drclark.net/products-devices-a-techniques/zapper-basics/zapping#1.
ROYAL RIFE - THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT KINDS OF RIFE DEVICES USED IN ELECTRONIC THERAPY.
RIFE BX VIRUS AND FREQUENCIES. ROYAL RIFE DISCOVERED WHAT HE BELIEVED TO BE THE BX CANCER VIRUS FROM BREAST CARCINOMAS: "1) BX (carcinoma); 2) BY (sarcoma—larger than BX); 3) Monococcoid form in the monocytes of the blood of over 90% of cancer patients. ... 4) Crytomyces pleomorphia fungi—identical morphologically to that .of the orchid and of the mushroom.." http://www.whale.to/v/rife.html#BX
Royal Rife wrote, " 'With the frequency instrument treatment, no tissue is destroyed, no pain is felt, no noise is audible, and no sensation is noticed. A tube lights up and 3 minutes later the treatment is completed. The virus or bacteria is destroyed and the body then recovers itself naturally from the toxic effect of the virus or bacteria. Several diseases may be treated simultaneously'."
ROYAL RIFE USED FREQUENCY ON 16 TERMINAL CANCER PATIENTS -1934 14 OUT OF 16 REPORTEDLY RECOVERED.
"Electricity is energy at the speed of light, and it can normalize the atoms. The DNA bases carry the message of the atom, and that message is garbled when the energy field is slow (just like a record played too slowly). It can equalize its normal energy with that of the 'sick' atom by slowly raising its energy to normal and making its message decipherable. It is an amazing system! It works for 90-95% of cancers." Sister Rosalie Bertell, PHD, 2012, Personal communication with EDITORS.
"With enough voltage and raw materials, the body can heal almost anything." Jerry Tennant, MD.
"Cells in the adult human are designed to run at -20 to -25 millivolts and to heal at -50 millivolts. ...Cancer occurs at +30 millivolts."
*NEED BOTH VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY
"To operate correctly, cells must have both the proper voltage and the proper frequency. Chronic illness is almost always characterized by low voltage and a decrease in the frequency of the affected organ." Jerry Tannant, 2012..
ELECTRICAL FREQUENCIES WHY VOLTAGE IS SO IMPORTANT - JERRY TENNANT, MD, HEALING IS VOLTAGE
Jerry Tennant, MD, in his Healing is Voltage book, helps us to understand that "chronic disease and healing are controlled by voltage .... Several bad things happen when voltage drops. The obvious one is that organs simply don't have enough horsepower to do their job. Another is that they don't have the energy to get rid of toxic waste which begins to accumulate. ... If you put a tube into a glass of water and began bubbling oxygen into the water, the amount of oxygen that will dissolve in the water is dictated by the voltage of the water. As voltage is raised, more oxygen will dissolve in water. However, as voltage drops, oxygen comes out of solution and leaves the water. Our cells are seventy percent water. Thus, as voltage begins to drop in us, oxygen leaves the cells. This has serious consequences."
As we all know, fatty acids are turned into glucose, which are processed through the Krebs cycle to ultimately produce ATP and electrons that help the cell function. "When oxygen is available, for every unit of fatty acids run through the Krebs cycle, we create thirty-eight molecules of ATP. However, if oxygen is unavailable, only two molecules of ATP are created for every unit of fatty acids. Thus, as voltage drops and oxygen levels drop, our metabolism goes from 'thirty-eight miles per gallon to two miles per gallon'. Thus, it is very difficult for cells to have enough energy to function with such inefficient metabolism. ... Another problem of decreased oxygen is infections. Our bodies contain perhaps 1 trillion microorganisms. However, most of these are inactive as long as oxygen is present. However, when oxygen levels drop, these bugs wake up. The first thing they want to do is have lunch. And that want to have you for lunch."
(See Jerry Tennant, MD. Healing is Voltage, Pages 94-95, Create Space, 2010.)
From Science and Vie Magazine, Issue #972, September 1998, pg 44 (translated to English): "The white cells (leukocytes) kill bacteria and pathogenic fungi by electrocuting them. Discovered by the team of Jacques Schrenzel and Karl Heinz Krause (University Hospital of Geneva), this means of defense is triggered as soon as the receptors of the white cell detect the presence of a microbe. This signal activates an enzymatic system located in the membrane of the leukocyte composed of a 'sleeping enzyme' (NADPH oxidase) and co-enzyme (NADPH). The reaction begins by the enzyme 'waking up', receiving enzymes from its co-enzyme, and transporting them through the membrane. Ejected out of the white cell, this electronic flux is focused towards the bacterium via oxygen molecules, and the bacterium dies. This discovery might open new lines of research on immunity deficiencies in patients who are deprived of this enzymatic system." (See http://www.altcancer.net/emf/new/SciVie.html.)
WHAT IS PEMF?
"PEMF stands for Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields, which are widely used these days to improve circulation and cell metabolism. The body can become accustomed to nonmoving (or static) magnetic fields, which are generally unable to deeply penetrate the body. A pulsed electromagnetic field, however, is quite dynamic, is able to penetrate all the way through the body, and creates a cascade of effects within the body. External magnetic fields and the normal electric and electromagnetic fields produced by the body interact. So, a magnetic field passing through our whole body will have an electromagnetic effect on each of our 70 trillion cells. As a result, magnetic fields act in basic and fundamental ways on molecules and tissues. They affect the most basic functions of all cells - human, animal, and plant included." William Pawluk, MD, http://drpawluk.com/education/new-to-magnetic-fields/.)
" A PEMF (Pulsed Electromagnetic Field) device applies a magnetic field to the body, which induces the production of weak electrical currents in the tissues. .... These weak biocurrents can influence the flow of blood and oxygen to the tissues and the flow of ions and nutrients into the cells. This enhancement of circulation and nutrient exchange can be beneficial in improving cellular bioenergestics." Steven Haltiwanger, PHD, http://www.royalrife.com/haltiwanger1.pdf,.
ELECTRICAL FREQUENCIES - NANOSECOND PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS INDUCED- APOPTOSIS - IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER IN MICE LEADS TO: TUMOR INHIBITION OF 79%!
*HIGHLIGHTS OF WU S ET AL., 2014 STUDY
"•NsPEFs (nanosecond pulsed electromagnetic fields) treatment at 30kV/cm can inhibit human breast cancer growth, and suppresses VEGF expression and tumor blood vessel growth.
•Such nsPEFs treatment does not cause permanent damage to healthy skins and tissues.
•NsPEFs could serve as a novel cancer therapy alone or in combination with other treatment. "
IMAGE : "A) Tumor cell structure and morphology changes evaluated ... in 6 h post 720 pulses at 30 kV/cm with 100 ns duration. Nuclei shrinkage is indicated with yellow arrows respectively. (B) Normalized nuclei area after treatment. (C) Blood vessel number around pulsed and control tumors on day1, day7 and day14."
In the Wu S et al. 2014 study, the researchers sought to determine if nanosecond pulsed electric fields, which had been proven successful in treating several mouse tumors, could also treat human tumors. In their study, the researchers "induced tumors of human breast cancer in mice, and treated both tumors and normal skin". Specifically, the mice were exposed to very short pulse length pulsed fields of 4 hertz, with 720 pulses of 100 ns (nanoseconds) duration, equating to 240 pulses of 4 hertz and 100ns on three consecutive days.
Results: "Two weeks after treatment, the growth of treated tumors was inhibited by 79%. ...
Specifically, "Pulsed tumors exhibited apoptosis. ... Besides the apoptosis triggered by nanosecond pulsed electric fields, tumor blood vessel growth suppression might also account for the tumor growth inhibition. Blood vessel growth plays a very important role, as highly developed blood vessel system would facilitate the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. ... Nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure not only induced a reduction in tumor blood vessel density, but also suppressed the expression of VEGF and CD34 significantly. VEGF is one of the most important proangiogenic factors, and CD34 is a biological marker for micro blood vessel density. This indicates that nanosecond pulsed fields would have profound effects in intracellular signaling. Particularly for anti-angiogenesis effects, one possible mechanism is due to the nanopore induced by nanosecond pulsed electric fields formed in fragile endothelial cell membranes of small blood vessels, especially capillaries. Tumor growth inhibition is also likely to be resulted from lacking supporting blood vessels. Despite a delayed growth instead of a complete remission that the solid tumors of breast cancer showed in the study, it suggests that nanosecond pulsed fields could be used as an assisting method in modern multimodality treatment." Note that, ..."Normal skin was treated exactly the same way as tumors, and pulsed skin showed no permanent damage."
Conclusion: "The results suggest nanosecond pulsed electric fields are able to inhibit human breast cancer development and suppress tumor blood vessel growth, indicating nanosecond pulsed fields may serve as a novel therapy for breast cancer in the future."
(See Wu S et al., Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields as a Novel Drug Free Therapy for Breast Cancer: an In vVvo study.Cancer Lett, 2014.)
ELECTRICAL FREQUENCIES - LOW FREQUENCY 20Hz PEMF, 60 MINUTES, FOR THREE DAYS CYTOTOXIC TO BREAST CANCER CELLS. WHILE NOT KILLLING ALL BREAST CANCER CELLS, DID NOT AFFECT NORMAL CELLS.
PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS - OPTIMAL EXPOSURE OF BREAST CANCER CELLS TO PEMF: * "MORE IS NOT NECESSARILY BETTER."
* One hour exposure to PEMF a day for three days.
*Just 20 Hz, 3 mT (30 gauss).
* Cytotoxic to breast cancer cells, slightly protective of normal breast cells.
*Stronger or longer exposures to PEMF were NOT as lethal. So, "more is not necessarily better".
*How? Elevates intracellular calcium.
* "Selective" killing by PEMFS does not completely kill the breast cancer cells.
Crocetti S et al. 2013
IMAGE: "Sixty minutes exposures to 3 mT PEMFs significantly increased breast cancer cell death, whereas shorter (30 minutes) or longer (90 minutes) exposure durations exerted smaller effects."
In the Crocetti S et al. 2013 study, the researchers, "Motivated by studies demonstrating the safety of very low frequency and intensity PEMFs and extending from our previous work, demonstrating that breast cancer cell are selectively vulnerable to 20 Hz pulsed electromagnetic fields, we investigated the effects of PEMFs on human breast epithelial cells of malignant and non-malignant phenotypes."
The researchers found that, "Cytotoxic sensitivity to certain PEMFs' parameters was entirely restricted to the malignant breast cancer cells and exhibited a clear dependency on the duration, frequency, and intensity of the PEMFs employed."
Findings: Breast cancer cells were found to be most vulnerable to 20Hz at an exposure of 60 minutes per day. And, while the PEMF was cytotoxic to the breast cancer cells, the PEMF was "slightly protective" to the non-malignant breast cells. Note that for these experiments, the researchers kept their analysis "to within three days of exposure to remain within the realm of a clinically feasible therapeutic strategy".
"A clear window of vulnerability of cancer cells to PEMFs exists; more is not necessarily better. That weaker fields, or less exposure to them, are less lethal, upon first impression, might seem somewhat intuitive. However, the fact that stronger, or longer, exposure to fields is less efficient at killing, implies some specifically of biological action, rather than a straightforward dose-dependent accumulation of generalized damage over a susceptible cell status."
Such a low frequency - 20 Hz ... Such a low exposure time - 60 minutes for three days ... So, how does it work?
Calcium! "As a commonly reported consequence of PEMF exposure is elevations of intracellular calcium levels, one possibility is that PEMFs mediate their effects via influencing intracellular calcium signaling pathways. In the context of this report 3 mT (30 Gauss) PEMFs at a frequency of 20 Hz for 60 minutes per day would create the 'correct' combination of calcium signals that would most effectively result in cell death. Indeed, it has been previously shown that chelating or augmenting intracellular calcium accordingly spares or compromises breast cancer cell survival, respectively." Indeed, the researchers cited the virtues of ginseng, stating that "Panaxydol, a derivative of Panax ginseng that induces sustained elevations in cytosolic calcium, preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells (including breast cancer cells ) but not normal cells". Conclusion: The researchers were not able to kill all of the breast cancer cells using PEMFs during the three day period. "As of yet, we have not achieved complete 'selective' killing with PEMFs. Although this objective might be achieved with further fine-tuning of the PEMF parameters (exposure magnitude, duration, signal shape, number of days of treatment), we cannot then exclude the possibility that other tissues type might then be implicated in the death pool." In the meantime, to reiterate, in this study, healthy breast cells were "unaffected, or even fortified" by the PEMF paradigms, while the greatest damage occurred to the breast cancer cells. What is tantalizing is the, "...Possibility that it may be ultimately feasible to selectively remove cancer cells from an organism without implicating normal tissues in the death pool using PEMF-based technologies."
(See Crocetti S et al., Low Intensity and Frequency of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Selectively Impair Breast Cancer Cell Viability, PLOS One, 2013.)
HAVE DCIS? DCIS (DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU) IS PRE-CANCER. DCIS MAY OR MAY NOT DEVELOP INTO CANCER *COULD DCIS BENEFIT FROM PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS? Here are some of William Pawluk, MD's insightful comments on the Crocetti S et al. 2013 breast cancer cell study: "While it is not certain from this study whether these results would be best seen in the setting of actual cancer in humans or to prevent the development of cancer is still unknown. Since this research seems to indicate, as does much other research, that PEMFs do not seem to affect healthy cells in any negative way, PEMFs may be a very useful tool in both treating and preventing breast cancer. Because we don't have definitive research data to support this concept, I would not normally recommend using PEMF therapies as a sole solution. However, for those individuals who are not candidates for conventional therapies or whose personal preferences prevent them from using conventional therapies, PEMFs may well be a good alternative."
Dr. Pawluk commented, " I think this may certainly apply itself well in the case of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast, which is not considered a cancer, but rather a pre-cancer. A large percentage of women with DCIS never actually convert their DCIS process into actual cancer. Since conventional medicine can not predict who will convert and who won't at this point, conventional medical practice treats these as cancers, which results in a significant risk of overtreatment for a lot of women. Again, PEMFs may well be a good alternative in this situation, and the progress of the breast changes in DCIS may be monitored over time and if progression is confirmed, then more aggressive therapeutic measures may be applied."
2016 STUDY IN ACCORD WITH CROCETTI STUDY? SUPPORTS USING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THERAPY *"AS A FIRST MODALITY, RATHER THAN AS A LAST RESORT!"
In accord with the Crocetti study's findings about calcium and PEMFs is the Lucia U et al. 2016 research into magnetic fields.
In the Lucia U et al. study, the researchers found that "ion flow control across the membrane can lead to a different response by the cancer, thus potentially signalling a novel avenue for cancer research and ultimately, for therapy". Specifically, the researchers commented that "a more effective ion is calcium, which may indicate that a therapeutic modulation of calcium ions could yield an inhibitory effect on cancer growth".
Of interest, the researchers stated that since there is a "ratio between the energy consumption by a cancer inside the magnetic field (50 uT, 40 Hz) and outside of it, it further highlights how the magnetic field exerts resistance against the growth of cancer, particularly at the early stage of tumor growth when rapid cell proliferation dominates, while its effectiveness tampers off later on which seems to support advocating for magnetic field therapy early on in the treatment cycle, as a first modality, rather than as a last resort."
Lucia U et al., Constructal Approach to Cell Membranes Transport: Amending the Norton-Simon Hypothesis for Cancer Treatment, Scientific Reports, 2016.
BREAST CANCER STRATEGY
SAFFRON + ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD
ELECTRICAL FREQUENCIES-CAN THE SAFFRON HERB PLUS ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD (50 Hz, 400 GAUSS, NOT PULSED) DECREASE ANGIOGENESIS BY REDUCING VEGF-A IN BREAST CANCER CELLS?
SAFFRON AND LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS DECREASE VEGF (STIMULATES ANGIOGENESIS)
"The inhibitory effect of synergic use of saffron aqueous extract and low frequency (50 Hz) , 0.04 T (400 gauss) intensity electromagnetic field on angiogenesis by reduction of VEGF-A level in human breast cancer cells compared to control group which may introduce part of anti- tumor property of saffron via decreasing VEGF-A and novel anti -angiogenic characteristic of low frequency electromagnetic field." Mousavi M et al., 2014.
Yes! ..... According to the Mousavi M et al. 2014 study.
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, can be promoted by such things as "hypoxia condition, low intra-tumor pH, hypoglycemia, stress, and inflammation, which cause vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression from VEGF/PDGF super gene family" that includes the isoform VEGF-A. VEGF-A is known to be a regulator of angiogenesis.
The researchers sought to decrease angiogenesis via reducing VEGF-A gene expression.
Knowing that bioelectromagnetic fields have been shown to be clinically beneficial in the gauss amplitude range in angiogenesis, the researchers chose to test the synergy of a natural compound, saffron, along with the electromagnetic field.
"Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) and its constituents especially crocetin, picrocrocin and volatile compounds including safranal, crocins (glycosyl esters of crocetin) which are unusual water soluble carotenoids showed antioxidant activity in different organs ... It has been suggested that the antioxidant activity of saffron compounds can protect nucleic acids from harmful chemicals. Different studies indicated the anti cancer properties of saffron both in vitro and in vivo."
"The aim of this study was finding out if the synergistic effects of saffron aqueous extract (the saffron herb has anti-cancer properties) and low-frequency electromagnetic field could decrease angiogenesis via reduction of VEGF-A gene expression."
Experiment: The cells were treated with "saffron aqueous extract at concentrations of 100, 200, 400, and 800 ug/ml. 48 hours after treatment, all flasks were expose with electromagnetic fields, then the total RNA was extracted."
Results: "Most reduction in gene expression (VEGF-A) can be seen in the highest concentration of saffron extract (800 µg/ml) with 17% reduction on gene expression, while there is no difference between 100 and 200 µg/ml, but compared to control group it is also fell noticeably with 11% and 12% respectively. Synergistic use of low frequency electromagnetic field (50Hz, 400 gauss) and saffron aqua extract shows reduction in concentration 100 to 800 µg/ml with 17%, 13%, 15% and 19% respectively and was significant at concentration of 800 µg/ml. There was a reduction in VEGF-A in breast cancer cells treated with "both saffron aqueous extract and bio-electromagnetic fields in comparison with non-treated cells, which showed synergistic use of them may lead to further the anti-angiogenic potential of this medical herb and therapeutic effects of low frequency 400 gauss electromagnetic field..."
Conclusion: Thus, the "lack of therapy toxicity and the efficacy observed (using saffron and an electromagnetic field) could develop a new area as a promising strategy in the treatment of breast cancer, prevent angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis, although further research is needed to figure out the accurate mechanism".
(See Mousavi M et al., Reduction VEGF-A Expression Induced by Saffron Aqua Extract with Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field in MCF-7 Cell Line, The Jouranl of Genes, Microbes, and Immunity, 2014.)
ELECTRICAL FREQUENCIES - CAN THE SAFFRON HERB PLUS ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD (50 Hz, 400 GAUSS, NOT PULSED) DECREASE ANGIOGENESIS BY REDUCING MMP (METALLOPROTEINASE) IN BREAST CANCER CELLS?
SAFFRON AND LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS DECREASE MMP (METALLOPROTEINASE)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) - extracellular proteinases - regulate tissue homeostasis, and in cancer, altered proteolysis is associated with tumor growth. Saffron extract plus 400 gauss electromagnetic field decreased MMP levels in breast cancer cells,"showing both the anti-angiogenic potential of this medical herb and therapeutic effects of bio electromagnetic fields..." Asadi-Samani M et al., 2015.
Angiogenesis is the "sprouting of new blood vessels".
The growth of tumors is "a result of blood vessel development".
Just above, the Mousavi M et al. 2014 study found that saffron and low frequency electromagnetic fields have an influence on VEGF expression (a prelude to angiogenesis.) in breast cancer cells.
This research team went one step further...
Once VEGF binds to transmembrane receptors, endothelial cells secrete metalloproteinase (MMP), which "has a great effect on the angiogenesis process as an extracellular protease (degrades extracellular matrix, etc.)"
So, what is the effect of saffron and low frequency electromagnetic field therapy on MMP expression in breast cancer cells?
Findings: 48 hours after treatment with saffron, low level electromagnetic field frequencies were used - 50Hz, 0.04T - on the breast cancer cells.The "inhibitory effect of saffron at concentration of 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/ml on MMP gene expression in comparison with the control group was 5%, 18%, 15% and 11% respectively. Low-frequency electromagnetic field itself also could reduce MMP up to 8% in comparison with the control group which is remarkable. Synergistic use of saffron and electromagnetic field had an inhibitory effect on gene expression of 23%, 20%, 19% and 16% respectively. Results indicated a decrease in the expression of MMP in the treated samples with both saffron and exposure by low frequency electromagnetic field compared to controls.
(See Asadi-Samani, "The Synergistic Effect of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field and Saffron Extract on MMP Gene Expression in MCF-7 Cell Line, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015.)